Haemorrhoids, also known as Piles, are enlarged and swollen blood vessels which are in or around the lower rectum and the anus. Most of the time you are not aware of having haemorrhoids but in most cases you will feel a small lump which is just inside or outside the anus.
Constipation, pregnancy, ageing, hereditary factors, heavy lifting or even chronic cough are few common factors that can cause piles. While smaller piles disappear as the constipation is better , some may have symptoms of bleeding, itching and pain and mucus discharge while passing stool.
Most of the time Piles are painless, but when there is a tear or crack in the lining of the lower rectum, there is a formation of anal fissure which is usually associated with lot of pricking , burning pains . Cancer of the rectum, tumors and other inflammatory conditions need to be ruled out to finally diagnose the condition as Anal Fissure.Fissure can be very painful with pain lasting for several hours after defecation and associated itching. Constipation , repeated diarrhoea and strains during childbirth are some of the contributing factors.
Sometimes there is another condition wherein a small channel is formed with its internal opening in the anal canal and the external opening in the skin near the anus– is known as a Fistula. Crohn’s disease, an infection near the anus forming an abscess, diverticulitis and tuberculosis can be few causes of anal Fistula. Symptoms associated are skin irritation, swelling and redness of the anal region and a constant oozing or discharge from the anus and pain on slightest movement like sitting down or cough .
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